The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique –a powerful tool to study microstructures by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) In the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique has developed into a powerful tool for the crystallographic analysis of materials. In particular, the emergence of computer algorithms for the fully automated analysis of diffraction patterns have pushed the technique to develop into a new kind of scanning microscopy technique, known as “orientation imaging microscopy, OIM*” [1] or “crystal orientation microscopy/mapping, COM”. It uses computer algorithms for the automated analysis of the diffraction patterns. The COM technique is based on the consecutive acquisition of electron diffraction patterns obtained from every point of a scan grid on a flat surface of a steeply inclined sample in the SEM.